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[[Category:Raspberry Pi]]
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{{LangSwitch}}
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== Introduction ==
  
 +
This is a step by step guide to help beginners to cross-compile Qt5 for the Raspberry Pi. This allows you to be able to compile Qt5 applications for the Raspberry Pi from a PC and also deploy to the device automatically and debug programs. The instructions were tested on Ubuntu 15.04 but should work with any Debian based operating system.
  
= Beginner's guide to cross-compile Qt5 on RaspberryPi =
+
This article will focus on simplicity, if you are looking for additional customization, please check a more [http://wiki.qt.io/RaspberryPi detailed guide].
  
 +
For a detailed tutorial on cross-compiling under Windows, see [http://visualgdb.com/tutorials/raspberry/qt/embedded/ this tutorial].
  
== Introduction ==
+
For an up-to-date guide for cross-compiling Qt 5.6 targeting eglfs and Raspbian Jessie, see [[RaspberryPi2EGLFS]].
  
This is a step by step guide to help beginners to: cross-compile QT5 for RaspberryPi(wheezy), create, deploy and run an example project. This article will focus on simplicity, so if you are looking for additional customization, please check a more [http://wiki.qt.io/RaspberryPi detailed guide].
+
== Getting Started ==
  
For an easy install, try [https://gist.github.com/raw/3488286/d1d301946297be999d96df632a0ad0095a4d77e7/bakeqtpi.bash this script.]
+
First we create a folder to hold the source code and all the required files to do the cross-compilation. We chose to create a directory named "opt" in the home folder:
Or get a later version [http://gitorious.org/bakeqtpi here]
 
For help, run
 
  
<code> $ ./bakeqtpi.bash —help</code>
+
<code lang=bash>mkdir ~/opt
  
== Getting Started ==
+
cd ~/opt</code>
 
 
First we create a folder to hold the source code and all the required files to do the cross-compilation. We chose to create a directory named "opt" in the home folder:
 
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~$ mkdir~/opt
 
paulo@westeros:~$ cd~/opt</code>
 
  
 
Now, download the following files:
 
Now, download the following files:
 
* Raspbian Wheezy image from ([http://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads here]):
 
* Raspbian Wheezy image from ([http://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads here]):
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~/opt$ wget http://downloads.raspberrypi.org/raspbian_latest/ -O wheezy-raspbian-latest.zip
+
<code lang="bash">
paulo@westeros:~/opt$ unzip wheezy-raspbian-latest.zip</code>
+
wget http://downloads.raspberrypi.org/raspbian_latest -O wheezy-raspbian-latest.zip
 +
 
 +
unzip wheezy-raspbian-latest.zip</code>
 +
 
 
And mount it:
 
And mount it:
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~/opt$ sudo mkdir /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs
+
<code lang="bash"> sudo mkdir /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs
paulo@westeros:~/opt$ sudo mount -o loop,offset=62914560 2015-02-16-raspbian-wheezy.img /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs</code>
+
 
 +
sudo mount -o loop,offset=62914560 2015-05-05-raspbian-wheezy.img /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs</code>
 +
 
 +
Note: The name of the image file and the offset value in the above mount command will change with the latest version of Raspbian.  To get the correct offset value, use:
  
* The toolchain built by Donald: (Note, seems to be dead links!)
+
<code lang="bash"> sudo fdisk -l /path/to/imagefile</code>
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~/opt$ wget https://www.dropbox.com/s/sl919ly0q79m1e6/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf.tbz
+
 
(or a mirror at http://swap.tsmt.eu/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf.tbz with sha1 f6255c6aca925239dc943d22a794f642daa17e65)
+
You will see something like:
(or better at http://de.sourceforge.jp/projects/sfnet_rfidmonitor/downloads/crosscompilation-resources/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf.tbz
+
 
as the above noted links seem to be broken)
+
<code lang="bash">sudo fdisk -l ./2016-09-23-raspbian-jessie.img
paulo@westeros:~/opt$ tar -xf gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf.tbz</code>
+
 
Pro tip: don't build your own cross-compiler. You'll overlook something important and lose a couple of hours of your life for nothing. A suitable Raspberry Pi cross-compiler is also available here: https://github.com/raspberrypi/tools
+
Disk ./2016-09-23-raspbian-jessie.img: 4.1 GiB, 4348444672 bytes, 8493056 sectors
 +
 
 +
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
 +
 
 +
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
 
 +
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
 
 +
Disklabel type: dos
 +
 
 +
Disk identifier: 0xd94ffdb3
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Device                            Boot  Start    End Sectors Size Id Type
 +
 
 +
./2016-09-23-raspbian-jessie.img1        8192  137215  129024  63M  c W95 FAT32 (LBA)
 +
 
 +
./2016-09-23-raspbian-jessie.img2      137216 8493055 8355840  4G 83 Linux</code>
 +
 
 +
The first image is the bootable sector.  The second image is what you want to mount.  Obtain the correct offset by multiplying the start of the second sector (here 137216) by the sector size (here 512) to obtain the offset.  Here the correct offset is '''137216 * 512 = 70254592'''
 +
 
 +
* Download the cross compiling toolchain:
 +
<code lang="bash">wget https://www.dropbox.com/s/sl919ly0q79m1e6/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf.tbz
 +
 
 +
(or at http://de.sourceforge.jp/projects/sfnet_rfidmonitor/downloads/crosscompilation-resources/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf.tbz)
 +
 
 +
tar -xf gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf.tbz</code>
  
 
It is a 32-bit build so if you are running on a 64-bit machine (you probably are) you need to install ia32-libs:
 
It is a 32-bit build so if you are running on a 64-bit machine (you probably are) you need to install ia32-libs:
 +
 
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~/opt$ sudo apt-get install ia32-libs</code>
 
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~/opt$ sudo apt-get install ia32-libs</code>
 +
 +
<big>* ia32-libs has been replaced with Multiarch. Try installing lib32z1 lib32ncurses5 lib32bz2-1.0 instead.</big>
  
 
* Clone the cross-compile-tools repository:
 
* Clone the cross-compile-tools repository:
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~/opt$ git clone git://gitorious.org/cross-compile-tools/cross-compile-tools.git</code>
+
This repository contains a script that will be used to fix some symbolic links.
 +
 
 +
<code lang="bash"> git clone https://github.com/darius-kim/cross-compile-tools.git</code>
  
 
* Clone and init the Qt5 repository:
 
* Clone and init the Qt5 repository:
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~/opt$ git clone git://gitorious.org/qt/qt5.git
+
 
paulo@westeros:~/opt$ cd qt5
+
<code lang="bash">git clone git://code.qt.io/qt/qt5.git
paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5$ ./init-repository</code>
+
 
 +
cd qt5
 +
 
 +
./init-repository</code>
 +
 
 
If you're behind a firewall ./init-repository might fail. First run this command:
 
If you're behind a firewall ./init-repository might fail. First run this command:
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5$ sed -i 's/git:/https:git./' .gitmodules</code>
+
 
 +
<code lang="bash">sed -i 's/git:/https:git./' .gitmodules</code>
 +
 
 
Then retry:
 
Then retry:
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5$ ./init-repository -f</code>
 
  
* Finally, apply a patch on the qtjsbackend repository:
+
<code lang="bash">./init-repository -f</code>
<code lang="bash">paulo@wseteros:~/opt/qt5$ cd ~/opt/qt5/qtjsbackend
 
paulo@wseteros:~/opt/qt5/qtjsbackend$ git fetch https://codereview.qt.io/p/qt/qtjsbackend refs/changes/56/27256/4 && git cherry-pick FETCH_HEAD</code>
 
  
 
== Compiling qtbase ==
 
== Compiling qtbase ==
 
Now the we have all the resources needed to compile qt5 for raspberry, we need to execute a script to fix symlinks and lib paths:
 
Now the we have all the resources needed to compile qt5 for raspberry, we need to execute a script to fix symlinks and lib paths:
  
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~$ cd~/opt/cross-compile-tools
+
<code lang="bash">cd ~/opt/cross-compile-tools
paulo@westeros:~$ sudo ./fixQualifiedLibraryPaths /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/ ~/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc</code>
+
 
 +
sudo ./fixQualifiedLibraryPaths /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/ ~/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc</code>
  
 
Go to the qt5/qtbase folder and run:
 
Go to the qt5/qtbase folder and run:
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5/qtbase$ ./configure -opengl es2 -device linux-rasp-pi-g++ -device-option CROSS_COMPILE=~/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-
+
 
gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf- -sysroot /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs -opensource -confirm-license -optimized-qmake -reduce-exports -release -make libs
+
<code lang="bash">./configure -opengl es2 -device linux-rasp-pi-g++ -device-option CROSS_COMPILE=~/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf- -sysroot /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs -opensource -confirm-license -optimized-qmake -reduce-exports -release -make libs -prefix /usr/local/qt5pi -hostprefix /usr/local/qt5pi
-prefix /usr/local/qt5pi
+
 
paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5/qtbase$ make -j 4
+
make -j 4
paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5/qtbase$ sudo make install</code>
+
 
 +
sudo make install</code>
 +
 
 
Note: if you want the qmlscene binary you should add -make tools to the ./configure command.
 
Note: if you want the qmlscene binary you should add -make tools to the ./configure command.
  
Line 75: Line 117:
  
 
To compile, you must do like the example below:
 
To compile, you must do like the example below:
 +
 
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5$ cd qtimageformats
 
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5$ cd qtimageformats
 +
 
paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5/qtimageformats$ /usr/local/qt5pi/bin/qmake .
 
paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5/qtimageformats$ /usr/local/qt5pi/bin/qmake .
 +
 
paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5/qtimageformats$ make -j4
 
paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5/qtimageformats$ make -j4
 +
 
paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5/qtimageformats$ sudo make install</code>
 
paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5/qtimageformats$ sudo make install</code>
  
We have all the modules installed in the wheezy image, now we can copy it to the sdcard using dd:
+
 
 +
== Transferring the changed image back onto SD Card ==
 +
After completing the these instructions the Raspberry Pi image will have QT5 installed onto it now we can copy it to the sdcard using dd:
 +
 
 
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5$ cd~/opt/
 
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5$ cd~/opt/
 +
 
paulo@westeros:~/opt$ sync; sudo umount /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs
 
paulo@westeros:~/opt$ sync; sudo umount /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs
paulo@westeros:~/opt$ sudo dd bs=1M if=2015-02-16-raspbian-wheezy.img of=/dev/sdb; sync
+
 
 +
paulo@westeros:~/opt$ sudo dd bs=1M if=2015-05-05-raspbian-wheezy.img of=/dev/sdb; sync
 +
 
 
</code>
 
</code>
  
obs: Check the entry point of your sdcard. Mine was /dev/sdb.
+
Note: Check the what the device name of your SD Card is by running the following command which will list the storage devices on your computer. Don't use the number at the end as that is the partition number and we're writing to the whole SD card:
 +
 
 +
<code lang="bash">sudo fdisk -l</code>
 +
 
 +
'''Notes for macOS'''
  
'''Notes for OSX'''
+
* Because your sdcard will be partitioned, macOS won't let you umount it, so you'll need to type:
  
* Because your sdcard will be partitioned, OSX won't let you umount it, so you'll need to type:
 
 
<code lang="bash">sudo diskutil umountDisk /dev/disk3</code>
 
<code lang="bash">sudo diskutil umountDisk /dev/disk3</code>
  
Line 96: Line 151:
  
 
* To perform dd you will need to use the *r*disk index, so if your sdcard is disk3 you will need to type:
 
* To perform dd you will need to use the *r*disk index, so if your sdcard is disk3 you will need to type:
<code lang="bash">sudo dd bs=1M if=2015-02-16-raspbian-wheezy.img of=/dev/rdisk3; sync</code>
+
 
 +
<code lang="bash">sudo dd bs=1M if=2015-05-05-raspbian-wheezy.img of=/dev/rdisk3; sync</code>
  
 
Boot up your pi.
 
Boot up your pi.
Line 107: Line 163:
  
 
go to '''Tools -> Options..-> Build & Run -> Compilers''' tab.
 
go to '''Tools -> Options..-> Build & Run -> Compilers''' tab.
 +
 
click in "'''Add -> GCC'''".
 
click in "'''Add -> GCC'''".
On "'''Compiler Path'''" set to "/home/<you>/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-g+''".
+
 
 +
On "'''Compiler Path'''" set to "''/home/<you>/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-g+''".
 +
 
 
Name it "ARM GCC" or similar.
 
Name it "ARM GCC" or similar.
 +
 
obs: Adjust it to your username.
 
obs: Adjust it to your username.
  
 
=== Qt Version settings. ===
 
=== Qt Version settings. ===
 
Now go to '''Tools -> Options..-> Build & Run -> Qt Versions''' tab.
 
Now go to '''Tools -> Options..-> Build & Run -> Qt Versions''' tab.
 +
 
Click in "Add.." and choose you qmake for raspberry "/usr/local/qt5pi/bin/qmake".
 
Click in "Add.." and choose you qmake for raspberry "/usr/local/qt5pi/bin/qmake".
  
'''Note for OSX'''
+
'''Note for macOS'''
 
* Because /usr is not visible by default, you first need to open a terminal and type:
 
* Because /usr is not visible by default, you first need to open a terminal and type:
<code>sudo SetFile -a v /usr</code>
+
 
 +
<code lang="bash">sudo SetFile -a v /usr</code>
 +
 
 
* After you've completed the qmake selection, if you wish to make /usr invisible again, type the same command with a capital V :
 
* After you've completed the qmake selection, if you wish to make /usr invisible again, type the same command with a capital V :
<code>sudo SetFile -a V /usr</code>
+
 
 +
<code lang="bash">sudo SetFile -a V /usr</code>
 +
 
 +
An alternative is to use CMD+SHIFT+. (dot) in the file dialog to make invisible directories momentarily visible
  
 
=== Configure Linux Devices ===
 
=== Configure Linux Devices ===
Line 126: Line 192:
  
 
Add a new configuration setting a "Generic Linux Device"
 
Add a new configuration setting a "Generic Linux Device"
 +
 
Hostname or IP address is the IP of your raspberry
 
Hostname or IP address is the IP of your raspberry
 +
 
user is '''pi'''
 
user is '''pi'''
 +
 
password is '''raspberry'''
 
password is '''raspberry'''
 +
 
obs: if your not did change it.
 
obs: if your not did change it.
 +
 +
== Target Path ==
 +
When you try to deploy a program on your Raspberry Pi from Qtcreator you may get an error about an unknown command. This is because Qtcreator does not know where to copy the compiled file onto the Raspberry Pi.
 +
 +
The following line should be added to your .pro file:
 +
 +
<code lang="bash">target.path = /home/pi/</code>
 +
 +
You may change the path to anything you want and the executable will be copied to and run from this location.
 +
  
 
Now you are ready to run your first Qt raspberry pi project.
 
Now you are ready to run your first Qt raspberry pi project.
Line 135: Line 215:
 
== Example Project ==
 
== Example Project ==
 
You can download a hello world project:
 
You can download a hello world project:
<code>paulo@westeros:~$ git clone https://git.gitorious.org/qt5-raspberrypi-example/qt5-raspberrypi-example.git</code>
+
 
 +
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~$ git clone https://git.gitorious.org/qt5-raspberrypi-example/qt5-raspberrypi-example.git</code>
  
 
Open the project in Qt Creator and go to the Projects pane.
 
Open the project in Qt Creator and go to the Projects pane.
 +
 
Click Manage Kits and then Add.
 
Click Manage Kits and then Add.
 +
 
Fill in:
 
Fill in:
 +
 
Name: Raspberry Pi
 
Name: Raspberry Pi
 +
 
Device Type: Generic Linux Device
 
Device Type: Generic Linux Device
 +
 
Device: Raspberry Pi
 
Device: Raspberry Pi
 +
 
Compiler: ARM GCC
 
Compiler: ARM GCC
 +
 
Debugger->Manage->Edit->"/home/<you>/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-gdb" (change your username)
 
Debugger->Manage->Edit->"/home/<you>/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-gdb" (change your username)
 +
 
Qt version: Qt 5.x.x (qt5pi)
 
Qt version: Qt 5.x.x (qt5pi)
 +
 
Ok->Add Kit->Raspberry Pi
 
Ok->Add Kit->Raspberry Pi
  
Line 155: Line 245:
 
=== Qt version not properly installed ===
 
=== Qt version not properly installed ===
 
You need to keep the SD card image mounted during development!
 
You need to keep the SD card image mounted during development!
 +
 +
Use this command in the same folder as the .img file:
 +
 +
<code lang="bash">sudo mount -o loop,offset=62914560 2015-05-05-raspbian-wheezy.img /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs</code>
  
 
If QtCreator still reports this after mounting the SD card image, then you may need to create the directories missing from  
 
If QtCreator still reports this after mounting the SD card image, then you may need to create the directories missing from  
  
<code>/mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/usr/local/qt5pi/</code>
+
<code lang="bash">/mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/usr/local/qt5pi/</code>
  
 
or whatever the mount path is (these will probably include bin, translations, and so on). You can create empty directories using the mkdir command.
 
or whatever the mount path is (these will probably include bin, translations, and so on). You can create empty directories using the mkdir command.
Line 165: Line 259:
 
It means that mkspec is not found on your sysroot, so your must copy it.
 
It means that mkspec is not found on your sysroot, so your must copy it.
  
<code>paulo@westeros:~$ sudo cp -r /usr/local/qt5pi/mkspecs/ /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/usr/local/qt5pi/</code>
+
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~$ sudo cp -r /usr/local/qt5pi/mkspecs/ /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/usr/local/qt5pi/</code>
  
 
If the problem persists, create the missing symlink, e.g.
 
If the problem persists, create the missing symlink, e.g.
  
<code>sudo ln -s /usr/local/qt5pi/mkspecs/devices/linux-rasp-pi-g''+ /usr/local/qt5pi/mkspecs/default</code>
+
<code lang="bash">sudo ln -s /usr/local/qt5pi/mkspecs/devices/linux-rasp-pi-g''+ /usr/local/qt5pi/mkspecs/default</code>
  
 
It is probably a good idea to do the same for the sysroot mkspecs.
 
It is probably a good idea to do the same for the sysroot mkspecs.
Line 179: Line 273:
 
<code>INCLUDEPATH += /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/usr/local/qt5pi/include/</code>
 
<code>INCLUDEPATH += /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/usr/local/qt5pi/include/</code>
  
=== cc1: fatal error: .pch/release-shared/QtGui: No such file or directory ===
+
=== cc1: fatal error... ===
 +
'''cc1: fatal error: .pch/release-shared/QtGui: No such file or directory'''
 +
 
 
Some people have seen this error. Adding the "-no-pch" option when running configure should prevent it.
 
Some people have seen this error. Adding the "-no-pch" option when running configure should prevent it.
  
=== Getting Could not determine the target architecture! and Could not determine the host architecture! ===
+
=== Getting Could not determine... ===
 +
'''Getting Could not determine the target architecture! and Could not determine the host architecture!'''
 +
 
 
If you are getting this kind of error, it is possible that your current git branch is something other than master. To be sure, do the following:
 
If you are getting this kind of error, it is possible that your current git branch is something other than master. To be sure, do the following:
  
<code>daniel@daniel-t3500 : ~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git branch </code>
+
<code lang="bash">daniel@daniel-t3500 : ~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git branch </code>
  
 
If it shows like this:
 
If it shows like this:
Line 192: Line 290:
  
 
Then you must checkout to master branch before running ./configure:
 
Then you must checkout to master branch before running ./configure:
<code>daniel@daniel-t3500 :~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git checkout master
+
 
 +
<code lang="bash">daniel@daniel-t3500 :~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git checkout master
 +
 
 
daniel@daniel-t3500 : ~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git branch
 
daniel@daniel-t3500 : ~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git branch
 +
 
* master</code>
 
* master</code>
  
 
It is also good to fetch the latest commits and apply them by doing:
 
It is also good to fetch the latest commits and apply them by doing:
<code>daniel@daniel-t3500 :~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git pull</code>
+
 
 +
<code lang="bash">daniel@daniel-t3500 :~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git pull</code>
  
 
Also, check for the installation of libz (32 bits) in yor system. In ubuntu (64 bits) you might just:
 
Also, check for the installation of libz (32 bits) in yor system. In ubuntu (64 bits) you might just:
<code>sudo apt-get install lib32z1-dev</code>
+
 
 +
<code lang="bash">sudo apt-get install lib32z1-dev</code>
  
 
After the ./configure script has failed first run these commands before restarting ./configure:
 
After the ./configure script has failed first run these commands before restarting ./configure:
  
<code>daniel@daniel-t3500 : ~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git reset —hard
+
<code lang="bash">daniel@daniel-t3500 : ~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git reset —hard
 +
 
 
daniel@daniel-t3500 :~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git git clean -dxf</code>
 
daniel@daniel-t3500 :~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git git clean -dxf</code>
  
=== EGL Error : Could not create the egl surface: error = 0x3000 ===
+
=== EGL Error : Could not create... ===
 +
'''EGL Error : Could not create the egl surface: error = 0x3000'''
 +
 
 
Try allocating more memory to video (try 64 or 128MB). Use the raspi-config utility to change this.
 
Try allocating more memory to video (try 64 or 128MB). Use the raspi-config utility to change this.
  
<code>pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo raspi-config</code>
+
<code lang="bash">pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo raspi-config</code>
  
 
=== ABI detection failed ===
 
=== ABI detection failed ===
 
You will need Qt Creator 2.6 for Qt5 up to and including beta2.
 
You will need Qt Creator 2.6 for Qt5 up to and including beta2.
 +
 
Any Qt 5 later than that will need to use nightly snapshots (or will have to wait for Qt Creator 2.6.1): After the beta2 all libraries were renamed again.
 
Any Qt 5 later than that will need to use nightly snapshots (or will have to wait for Qt Creator 2.6.1): After the beta2 all libraries were renamed again.
  
 
See [http://forum.qt.io/viewthread/22023 this forum thread for more details]
 
See [http://forum.qt.io/viewthread/22023 this forum thread for more details]
  
=== ./configure: 2654: ./configure: /home/<you>/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-g: not found -reduce-exports was requested but this compiler does not support it ===
+
=== ./configure: 2654: ./configure... ===
 +
'''./configure: 2654: ./configure: /home/<you>/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-g: not found -reduce-exports was requested but this compiler does not support it'''
 +
 
 
The error message is totally misleading. The real cause is that the precompile toolchain is 32-bit, so you need to:
 
The error message is totally misleading. The real cause is that the precompile toolchain is 32-bit, so you need to:
<code>sudo apt-get install ia32-libs</code>
+
 
 +
<code lang="bash">sudo apt-get install ia32-libs</code>
  
 
=== make: g: Command not found ===
 
=== make: g: Command not found ===
Qt requires a native (non-cross-compiling) copy of g''+ to be installed in order to build qmake. You can't use clang. Fix with:
+
Qt requires a native (non-cross-compiling) copy of ''g++'' to be installed in order to build qmake. You can't use clang. Fix with:
<code>sudo apt-get install g++</code>
+
 
 +
<code lang="bash">sudo apt-get install build-essential</code>
  
=== /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/usr/lib/arm-linux-gnueabihf/libdl.a(dlopen.o): In function `dlopen': (.text+0xc): undefined reference to `__dlopen' ===
+
=== In function `dlopen'... ===
 +
'''/mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/usr/lib/arm-linux-gnueabihf/libdl.a(dlopen.o): In function `dlopen': (.text+0xc): undefined reference to `__dlopen' '''
  
 
You need to run the ./fixQualifiedLibraryPaths again.
 
You need to run the ./fixQualifiedLibraryPaths again.
Line 232: Line 344:
 
See: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/13626726/an-error-building-qt-libraries-for-the-raspberry-pi for more info.
 
See: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/13626726/an-error-building-qt-libraries-for-the-raspberry-pi for more info.
  
=== cc1: fatal error: .pch/release-shared/Qt5Gui: No such file or directory ===
+
=== cc1: fatal error... ===
 +
'''cc1: fatal error: .pch/release-shared/Qt5Gui: No such file or directory'''
  
 
Try adding -no-pch to the ./configure command line.
 
Try adding -no-pch to the ./configure command line.
  
=== Cannot create forwarding script Betrete 'qtactiveqt'.git/hooks/commit-msg: Datei oder Verzeichnis nicht gefunden ===
+
=== Cannot create forwarding script... ===
 +
'''Cannot create forwarding script Betrete 'qtactiveqt'.git/hooks/commit-msg: Datei oder Verzeichnis nicht gefunden'''
  
 
Try:
 
Try:
<code>unset LANG
+
 
 +
<code lang="bash">unset LANG
 +
 
 
./init-repository -f</code>
 
./init-repository -f</code>

Latest revision as of 15:22, 10 January 2021

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Introduction

This is a step by step guide to help beginners to cross-compile Qt5 for the Raspberry Pi. This allows you to be able to compile Qt5 applications for the Raspberry Pi from a PC and also deploy to the device automatically and debug programs. The instructions were tested on Ubuntu 15.04 but should work with any Debian based operating system.

This article will focus on simplicity, if you are looking for additional customization, please check a more detailed guide.

For a detailed tutorial on cross-compiling under Windows, see this tutorial.

For an up-to-date guide for cross-compiling Qt 5.6 targeting eglfs and Raspbian Jessie, see RaspberryPi2EGLFS.

Getting Started

First we create a folder to hold the source code and all the required files to do the cross-compilation. We chose to create a directory named "opt" in the home folder:

mkdir ~/opt

cd ~/opt

Now, download the following files:

  • Raspbian Wheezy image from (here):

wget http://downloads.raspberrypi.org/raspbian_latest -O wheezy-raspbian-latest.zip

unzip wheezy-raspbian-latest.zip

And mount it: sudo mkdir /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs

sudo mount -o loop,offset=62914560 2015-05-05-raspbian-wheezy.img /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs

Note: The name of the image file and the offset value in the above mount command will change with the latest version of Raspbian. To get the correct offset value, use:

sudo fdisk -l /path/to/imagefile

You will see something like:

sudo fdisk -l ./2016-09-23-raspbian-jessie.img

Disk ./2016-09-23-raspbian-jessie.img: 4.1 GiB, 4348444672 bytes, 8493056 sectors

Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes

Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

Disklabel type: dos

Disk identifier: 0xd94ffdb3


Device Boot Start End Sectors Size Id Type

./2016-09-23-raspbian-jessie.img1 8192 137215 129024 63M c W95 FAT32 (LBA)

./2016-09-23-raspbian-jessie.img2 137216 8493055 8355840 4G 83 Linux

The first image is the bootable sector. The second image is what you want to mount. Obtain the correct offset by multiplying the start of the second sector (here 137216) by the sector size (here 512) to obtain the offset. Here the correct offset is 137216 * 512 = 70254592

  • Download the cross compiling toolchain:

wget https://www.dropbox.com/s/sl919ly0q79m1e6/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf.tbz

(or at http://de.sourceforge.jp/projects/sfnet_rfidmonitor/downloads/crosscompilation-resources/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf.tbz)

tar -xf gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf.tbz

It is a 32-bit build so if you are running on a 64-bit machine (you probably are) you need to install ia32-libs:

paulo@westeros:~/opt$ sudo apt-get install ia32-libs

* ia32-libs has been replaced with Multiarch. Try installing lib32z1 lib32ncurses5 lib32bz2-1.0 instead.

  • Clone the cross-compile-tools repository:

This repository contains a script that will be used to fix some symbolic links.

git clone https://github.com/darius-kim/cross-compile-tools.git

  • Clone and init the Qt5 repository:

git clone git://code.qt.io/qt/qt5.git

cd qt5

./init-repository

If you're behind a firewall ./init-repository might fail. First run this command:

sed -i 's/git:/https:git./' .gitmodules

Then retry:

./init-repository -f

Compiling qtbase

Now the we have all the resources needed to compile qt5 for raspberry, we need to execute a script to fix symlinks and lib paths:

cd ~/opt/cross-compile-tools

sudo ./fixQualifiedLibraryPaths /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/ ~/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc

Go to the qt5/qtbase folder and run:

./configure -opengl es2 -device linux-rasp-pi-g++ -device-option CROSS_COMPILE=~/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf- -sysroot /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs -opensource -confirm-license -optimized-qmake -reduce-exports -release -make libs -prefix /usr/local/qt5pi -hostprefix /usr/local/qt5pi

make -j 4

sudo make install

Note: if you want the qmlscene binary you should add -make tools to the ./configure command.

Compiling other modules

Now that you have qmake, you can cross-compile the other modules. To avoid dependencies errors, the following order is sugested: qtimageformats, qtsvg, qtjsbackend, qtscript, qtxmlpatterns, qtdeclarative, qtsensors, qt3d, qtgraphicaleffects, qtjsondb, qtlocation, qtdocgallery.

To compile, you must do like the example below:

paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5$ cd qtimageformats

paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5/qtimageformats$ /usr/local/qt5pi/bin/qmake .

paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5/qtimageformats$ make -j4

paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5/qtimageformats$ sudo make install


Transferring the changed image back onto SD Card

After completing the these instructions the Raspberry Pi image will have QT5 installed onto it now we can copy it to the sdcard using dd:

paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5$ cd~/opt/

paulo@westeros:~/opt$ sync; sudo umount /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs

paulo@westeros:~/opt$ sudo dd bs=1M if=2015-05-05-raspbian-wheezy.img of=/dev/sdb; sync

Note: Check the what the device name of your SD Card is by running the following command which will list the storage devices on your computer. Don't use the number at the end as that is the partition number and we're writing to the whole SD card:

sudo fdisk -l

Notes for macOS

  • Because your sdcard will be partitioned, macOS won't let you umount it, so you'll need to type:

sudo diskutil umountDisk /dev/disk3

where "disk3" will be the /dev/diskXsY where your sdcard first appeared.

  • To perform dd you will need to use the *r*disk index, so if your sdcard is disk3 you will need to type:

sudo dd bs=1M if=2015-05-05-raspbian-wheezy.img of=/dev/rdisk3; sync

Boot up your pi.

Configuring Qt Creator

To use Qt Creator properly, you must configure the "Qt Version" and "Tool Chains" sections.

Tool Chain Settings

go to Tools -> Options..-> Build & Run -> Compilers tab.

click in "Add -> GCC".

On "Compiler Path" set to "/home/<you>/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-g+".

Name it "ARM GCC" or similar.

obs: Adjust it to your username.

Qt Version settings.

Now go to Tools -> Options..-> Build & Run -> Qt Versions tab.

Click in "Add.." and choose you qmake for raspberry "/usr/local/qt5pi/bin/qmake".

Note for macOS

  • Because /usr is not visible by default, you first need to open a terminal and type:

sudo SetFile -a v /usr

  • After you've completed the qmake selection, if you wish to make /usr invisible again, type the same command with a capital V :

sudo SetFile -a V /usr

An alternative is to use CMD+SHIFT+. (dot) in the file dialog to make invisible directories momentarily visible

Configure Linux Devices

Go to Tools -> Options…-> Devices -> Devices tab.

Add a new configuration setting a "Generic Linux Device"

Hostname or IP address is the IP of your raspberry

user is pi

password is raspberry

obs: if your not did change it.

Target Path

When you try to deploy a program on your Raspberry Pi from Qtcreator you may get an error about an unknown command. This is because Qtcreator does not know where to copy the compiled file onto the Raspberry Pi.

The following line should be added to your .pro file:

target.path = /home/pi/

You may change the path to anything you want and the executable will be copied to and run from this location.


Now you are ready to run your first Qt raspberry pi project.

Example Project

You can download a hello world project:

paulo@westeros:~$ git clone https://git.gitorious.org/qt5-raspberrypi-example/qt5-raspberrypi-example.git

Open the project in Qt Creator and go to the Projects pane.

Click Manage Kits and then Add.

Fill in:

Name: Raspberry Pi

Device Type: Generic Linux Device

Device: Raspberry Pi

Compiler: ARM GCC

Debugger->Manage->Edit->"/home/<you>/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-gdb" (change your username)

Qt version: Qt 5.x.x (qt5pi)

Ok->Add Kit->Raspberry Pi

Then go to the "Rasperry Pi" kit tab->System Environment and add LD_LIBRARY_PATH which is set to /usr/local/qt5pi/lib

Now you can build and run your application from Qt Creator.

Troubleshooting

Qt version not properly installed

You need to keep the SD card image mounted during development!

Use this command in the same folder as the .img file:

sudo mount -o loop,offset=62914560 2015-05-05-raspbian-wheezy.img /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs

If QtCreator still reports this after mounting the SD card image, then you may need to create the directories missing from

/mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/usr/local/qt5pi/

or whatever the mount path is (these will probably include bin, translations, and so on). You can create empty directories using the mkdir command.

The default mkspec symlink is broken.

It means that mkspec is not found on your sysroot, so your must copy it.

paulo@westeros:~$ sudo cp -r /usr/local/qt5pi/mkspecs/ /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/usr/local/qt5pi/

If the problem persists, create the missing symlink, e.g.

sudo ln -s /usr/local/qt5pi/mkspecs/devices/linux-rasp-pi-g+ /usr/local/qt5pi/mkspecs/default

It is probably a good idea to do the same for the sysroot mkspecs.

Include <QtGui/QtGui>: No such file or directory

It seems Qt's include was not found and you must add it to you .pro file:

INCLUDEPATH += /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/usr/local/qt5pi/include/

cc1: fatal error...

cc1: fatal error: .pch/release-shared/QtGui: No such file or directory

Some people have seen this error. Adding the "-no-pch" option when running configure should prevent it.

Getting Could not determine...

Getting Could not determine the target architecture! and Could not determine the host architecture!

If you are getting this kind of error, it is possible that your current git branch is something other than master. To be sure, do the following:

daniel@daniel-t3500 : ~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git branch

If it shows like this: * (no branch)

master

Then you must checkout to master branch before running ./configure:

daniel@daniel-t3500 :~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git checkout master

daniel@daniel-t3500 : ~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git branch

  • master

It is also good to fetch the latest commits and apply them by doing:

daniel@daniel-t3500 :~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git pull

Also, check for the installation of libz (32 bits) in yor system. In ubuntu (64 bits) you might just:

sudo apt-get install lib32z1-dev

After the ./configure script has failed first run these commands before restarting ./configure:

daniel@daniel-t3500 : ~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git reset —hard

daniel@daniel-t3500 :~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git git clean -dxf

EGL Error : Could not create...

EGL Error : Could not create the egl surface: error = 0x3000

Try allocating more memory to video (try 64 or 128MB). Use the raspi-config utility to change this.

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo raspi-config

ABI detection failed

You will need Qt Creator 2.6 for Qt5 up to and including beta2.

Any Qt 5 later than that will need to use nightly snapshots (or will have to wait for Qt Creator 2.6.1): After the beta2 all libraries were renamed again.

See this forum thread for more details

./configure: 2654: ./configure...

./configure: 2654: ./configure: /home/<you>/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-g: not found -reduce-exports was requested but this compiler does not support it

The error message is totally misleading. The real cause is that the precompile toolchain is 32-bit, so you need to:

sudo apt-get install ia32-libs

make: g: Command not found

Qt requires a native (non-cross-compiling) copy of g++ to be installed in order to build qmake. You can't use clang. Fix with:

sudo apt-get install build-essential

In function `dlopen'...

/mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/usr/lib/arm-linux-gnueabihf/libdl.a(dlopen.o): In function `dlopen': (.text+0xc): undefined reference to `__dlopen'

You need to run the ./fixQualifiedLibraryPaths again.

See: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/13626726/an-error-building-qt-libraries-for-the-raspberry-pi for more info.

cc1: fatal error...

cc1: fatal error: .pch/release-shared/Qt5Gui: No such file or directory

Try adding -no-pch to the ./configure command line.

Cannot create forwarding script...

Cannot create forwarding script Betrete 'qtactiveqt'.git/hooks/commit-msg: Datei oder Verzeichnis nicht gefunden

Try:

unset LANG

./init-repository -f