Difference between revisions of "Raspberry Pi Beginners Guide"

From Qt Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
 
(Added newlines to improve visual formatting)
 
(62 intermediate revisions by 22 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
=Beginner’s guide to cross-compile Qt5 on RaspberryPi=
+
[[Category:Raspberry Pi]]
 +
{{LangSwitch}}
 +
== Introduction ==
  
==Introduction==
+
This is a step by step guide to help beginners to cross-compile Qt5 for the Raspberry Pi. This allows you to be able to compile Qt5 applications for the Raspberry Pi from a PC and also deploy to the device automatically and debug programs. The instructions were tested on Ubuntu 15.04 but should work with any Debian based operating system.
  
This is a step by step guide to help beginners to: cross-compile QT5 for RaspberryPi(wheezy), create, deploy and run an example project. This article will focus on simplicity, so if you are looking for additional customization, please check a more [[RaspberryPi|detailed guide]] ''[qt.io]''.
+
This article will focus on simplicity, if you are looking for additional customization, please check a more [http://wiki.qt.io/RaspberryPi detailed guide].
  
For an easy install, try [https://gist.github.com/raw/3488286/d1d301946297be999d96df632a0ad0095a4d77e7/bakeqtpi.bash this script.] ''[gist.github.com]''<br /> Or get a later version [http://gitorious.org/bakeqtpi here] ''[gitorious.org]''<br /> For help, run
+
For a detailed tutorial on cross-compiling under Windows, see [http://visualgdb.com/tutorials/raspberry/qt/embedded/ this tutorial].
  
==Getting Started==
+
For an up-to-date guide for cross-compiling Qt 5.6 targeting eglfs and Raspbian Jessie, see [[RaspberryPi2EGLFS]].
  
First we create a folder to hold the source code and all the required files to do the cross-compilation. We chose to create a directory named “opt” in the home folder:<br />
+
== Getting Started ==
 +
 
 +
First we create a folder to hold the source code and all the required files to do the cross-compilation. We chose to create a directory named "opt" in the home folder:
 +
 
 +
<code lang=bash>mkdir ~/opt
 +
 
 +
cd ~/opt</code>
  
 
Now, download the following files:
 
Now, download the following files:
 +
* Raspbian Wheezy image from ([http://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads here]):
 +
<code lang="bash">
 +
wget http://downloads.raspberrypi.org/raspbian_latest -O wheezy-raspbian-latest.zip
 +
 +
unzip wheezy-raspbian-latest.zip</code>
 +
 +
And mount it:
 +
<code lang="bash"> sudo mkdir /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs
 +
 +
sudo mount -o loop,offset=62914560 2015-05-05-raspbian-wheezy.img /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs</code>
 +
 +
Note: The name of the image file and the offset value in the above mount command will change with the latest version of Raspbian.  To get the correct offset value, use:
 +
 +
<code lang="bash"> sudo fdisk -l /path/to/imagefile</code>
 +
 +
You will see something like:
 +
 +
<code lang="bash">sudo fdisk -l ./2016-09-23-raspbian-jessie.img
 +
 +
Disk ./2016-09-23-raspbian-jessie.img: 4.1 GiB, 4348444672 bytes, 8493056 sectors
 +
 +
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
 +
 +
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
 +
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 +
 +
Disklabel type: dos
 +
 +
Disk identifier: 0xd94ffdb3
 +
 +
 +
Device                            Boot  Start    End Sectors Size Id Type
 +
 +
./2016-09-23-raspbian-jessie.img1        8192  137215  129024  63M  c W95 FAT32 (LBA)
 +
 +
./2016-09-23-raspbian-jessie.img2      137216 8493055 8355840  4G 83 Linux</code>
 +
 +
The first image is the bootable sector.  The second image is what you want to mount.  Obtain the correct offset by multiplying the start of the second sector (here 137216) by the sector size (here 512) to obtain the offset.  Here the correct offset is '''137216 * 512 = 70254592'''
 +
 +
* Download the cross compiling toolchain:
 +
<code lang="bash">wget https://www.dropbox.com/s/sl919ly0q79m1e6/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf.tbz
 +
 +
(or at http://de.sourceforge.jp/projects/sfnet_rfidmonitor/downloads/crosscompilation-resources/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf.tbz)
 +
 +
tar -xf gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf.tbz</code>
 +
 +
It is a 32-bit build so if you are running on a 64-bit machine (you probably are) you need to install ia32-libs:
 +
 +
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~/opt$ sudo apt-get install ia32-libs</code>
 +
 +
<big>* ia32-libs has been replaced with Multiarch. Try installing lib32z1 lib32ncurses5 lib32bz2-1.0 instead.</big>
 +
 +
* Clone the cross-compile-tools repository:
 +
This repository contains a script that will be used to fix some symbolic links.
 +
 +
<code lang="bash"> git clone https://github.com/darius-kim/cross-compile-tools.git</code>
 +
 +
* Clone and init the Qt5 repository:
  
* Raspbian Wheezy image from ([http://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads here] ''[raspberrypi.org]''):<br /> And mount it:<br />
+
<code lang="bash">git clone git://code.qt.io/qt/qt5.git
  
* The toolchain built by Donald: (Note, seems to be dead links!)<br /> Pro tip: don’t build your own cross-compiler. You’ll overlook something important and loose a couple of hours of your life for nothing. A suitable Raspberry Pi cross-compiler is also available here: https://github.com/raspberrypi/tools
+
cd qt5
  
It is a 32-bit build so if you are running on a 64-bit machine (you probably are) you need to install ia32-libs:<br />
+
./init-repository</code>
  
* Clone the cross-compile-tools repository:<br />
+
If you're behind a firewall ./init-repository might fail. First run this command:
  
* Clone and init the Qt5 repository:<br /> If you’re behind a firewall ./init-repository might fail. First run this command:<br /> Then retry:<br />
+
<code lang="bash">sed -i 's/git:/https:git./' .gitmodules</code>
  
* Finally, apply a patch on the qtjsbackend repository:<br />
+
Then retry:
  
==Compiling qtbase==
+
<code lang="bash">./init-repository -f</code>
  
 +
== Compiling qtbase ==
 
Now the we have all the resources needed to compile qt5 for raspberry, we need to execute a script to fix symlinks and lib paths:
 
Now the we have all the resources needed to compile qt5 for raspberry, we need to execute a script to fix symlinks and lib paths:
  
Go to the qt5/qtbase folder and run:<br /> Note: if you want the qmlscene binary you should add -make tools to the ./configure command.
+
<code lang="bash">cd ~/opt/cross-compile-tools
 +
 
 +
sudo ./fixQualifiedLibraryPaths /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/ ~/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc</code>
 +
 
 +
Go to the qt5/qtbase folder and run:
 +
 
 +
<code lang="bash">./configure -opengl es2 -device linux-rasp-pi-g++ -device-option CROSS_COMPILE=~/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf- -sysroot /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs -opensource -confirm-license -optimized-qmake -reduce-exports -release -make libs -prefix /usr/local/qt5pi -hostprefix /usr/local/qt5pi
  
==Compiling other modules==
+
make -j 4
  
Now that you have qmake, you can cross-compile the other modules. To avoid dependencies errors, the following order is sugested:<br /> qtimageformats, qtsvg, qtjsbackend, qtscript, qtxmlpatterns, qtdeclarative, qtsensors, qt3d, qtgraphicaleffects, qtjsondb, qtlocation, qtdocgallery.
+
sudo make install</code>
  
To compile, you must do like the example below:<br />
+
Note: if you want the qmlscene binary you should add -make tools to the ./configure command.
  
We have all the modules installed in the wheezy image, now we can copy it to the sdcard using dd:<br />
+
== Compiling other modules ==
  
obs: Check the entry point of your sdcard. Mine was /dev/sdb.
+
Now that you have qmake, you can cross-compile the other modules. To avoid dependencies errors, the following order is sugested:
 +
qtimageformats, qtsvg, qtjsbackend, qtscript, qtxmlpatterns, qtdeclarative, qtsensors, qt3d, qtgraphicaleffects, qtjsondb, qtlocation, qtdocgallery.
  
'''Notes for <span class="caps">OSX</span>'''
+
To compile, you must do like the example below:
  
* Because your sdcard will be partitioned, <span class="caps">OSX</span> won’t let you umount it, so you’ll need to type: <br />
+
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5$ cd qtimageformats
  
where “disk3” will be the /dev/diskXsY where your sdcard first appeared.
+
paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5/qtimageformats$ /usr/local/qt5pi/bin/qmake .
  
* To perform dd you will need to use the *r*disk index, so if your sdcard is disk3 you will need to type:<br />
+
paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5/qtimageformats$ make -j4
 +
 
 +
paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5/qtimageformats$ sudo make install</code>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Transferring the changed image back onto SD Card ==
 +
After completing the these instructions the Raspberry Pi image will have QT5 installed onto it now we can copy it to the sdcard using dd:
 +
 
 +
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5$ cd~/opt/
 +
 
 +
paulo@westeros:~/opt$ sync; sudo umount /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs
 +
 
 +
paulo@westeros:~/opt$ sudo dd bs=1M if=2015-05-05-raspbian-wheezy.img of=/dev/sdb; sync
 +
 
 +
</code>
 +
 
 +
Note: Check the what the device name of your SD Card is by running the following command which will list the storage devices on your computer. Don't use the number at the end as that is the partition number and we're writing to the whole SD card:
 +
 
 +
<code lang="bash">sudo fdisk -l</code>
 +
 
 +
'''Notes for macOS'''
 +
 
 +
* Because your sdcard will be partitioned, macOS won't let you umount it, so you'll need to type:
 +
 
 +
<code lang="bash">sudo diskutil umountDisk /dev/disk3</code>
 +
 
 +
where "disk3" will be the /dev/diskXsY where your sdcard first appeared.
 +
 
 +
* To perform dd you will need to use the *r*disk index, so if your sdcard is disk3 you will need to type:
 +
 
 +
<code lang="bash">sudo dd bs=1M if=2015-05-05-raspbian-wheezy.img of=/dev/rdisk3; sync</code>
  
 
Boot up your pi.
 
Boot up your pi.
  
==Configuring Qt Creator==
+
== Configuring Qt Creator ==
 +
 
 +
To use Qt Creator properly, you must configure the "Qt Version" and "Tool Chains" sections.
 +
 
 +
=== Tool Chain Settings ===
 +
 
 +
go to '''Tools -> Options..-> Build & Run -> Compilers''' tab.
 +
 
 +
click in "'''Add -> GCC'''".
 +
 
 +
On "'''Compiler Path'''" set to "''/home/<you>/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-g+''".
 +
 
 +
Name it "ARM GCC" or similar.
 +
 
 +
obs: Adjust it to your username.
 +
 
 +
=== Qt Version settings. ===
 +
Now go to '''Tools -> Options..-> Build & Run -> Qt Versions''' tab.
  
To use Qt Creator properly, you must configure the “Qt Version” and “Tool Chains” sections.
+
Click in "Add.." and choose you qmake for raspberry "/usr/local/qt5pi/bin/qmake".
  
===Tool Chain Settings===
+
'''Note for macOS'''
 +
* Because /usr is not visible by default, you first need to open a terminal and type:
  
go to '''Tools -&gt; Options.. -&gt; Build &amp; Run -&gt; Compilers''' tab.<br /> click in “'''Add -&gt; <span class="caps">GCC</span>'''”.<br /> On “'''Compiler Path'''” set to “/home/&lt;you&gt;/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-g++”.<br /> Name it “<span class="caps">ARM</span> <span class="caps">GCC</span>” or similar.<br /> obs: Adjust it to your username.
+
<code lang="bash">sudo SetFile -a v /usr</code>
  
===Qt Version settings.===
+
* After you've completed the qmake selection, if you wish to make /usr invisible again, type the same command with a capital V :
  
Now go to '''Tools -&gt; Options.. -&gt; Build &amp; Run -&gt; Qt Versions''' tab.<br /> Click in “Add..” and choose you qmake for raspberry “/usr/local/qt5pi/bin/qmake”.
+
<code lang="bash">sudo SetFile -a V /usr</code>
  
'''Note for <span class="caps">OSX</span>'''
+
An alternative is to use CMD+SHIFT+. (dot) in the file dialog to make invisible directories momentarily visible
  
* Because /usr is not visible by default, you first need to open a terminal and type:<br />
+
=== Configure Linux Devices ===
* After you’ve completed the qmake selection, if you wish to make /usr invisible again, type the same command with a capital V :<br />
+
Go to '''Tools -> Options…-> Devices -> Devices''' tab.
  
===Configure Linux Devices===
+
Add a new configuration setting a "Generic Linux Device"
  
Go to '''Tools -&gt; Options… -&gt; Devices -&gt; Devices''' tab.
+
Hostname or IP address is the IP of your raspberry
 +
 
 +
user is '''pi'''
 +
 
 +
password is '''raspberry'''
 +
 
 +
obs: if your not did change it.
 +
 
 +
== Target Path ==
 +
When you try to deploy a program on your Raspberry Pi from Qtcreator you may get an error about an unknown command. This is because Qtcreator does not know where to copy the compiled file onto the Raspberry Pi.
 +
 
 +
The following line should be added to your .pro file:
 +
 
 +
<code lang="bash">target.path = /home/pi/</code>
 +
 
 +
You may change the path to anything you want and the executable will be copied to and run from this location.
  
Add a new configuration setting a “Generic Linux Device”<br /> Hostname or IP address is the IP of your raspberry<br /> user is '''pi'''<br /> password is '''raspberry'''<br /> obs: if your not did change it.
 
  
 
Now you are ready to run your first Qt raspberry pi project.
 
Now you are ready to run your first Qt raspberry pi project.
  
==Example Project==
+
== Example Project ==
 +
You can download a hello world project:
  
You can download a hello world project:<br />
+
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~$ git clone https://git.gitorious.org/qt5-raspberrypi-example/qt5-raspberrypi-example.git</code>
  
Open the project in Qt Creator and go to the Projects pane.<br /> Click Manage Kits and then Add.<br /> Fill in:<br /> Name: Raspberry Pi<br /> Device Type: Generic Linux Device<br /> Device: Raspberry Pi<br /> Compiler: <span class="caps">ARM</span> <span class="caps">GCC</span><br /> Debugger-&gt;Manage-&gt;Edit-&gt;”/home/&lt;you&gt;/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-gdb” (change your username)<br /> Qt version: Qt 5.x.x (qt5pi)<br /> Ok-&gt;Add Kit-&gt;Raspberry Pi
+
Open the project in Qt Creator and go to the Projects pane.
  
Then go to the “Rasperry Pi” kit tab-&gt;System Environment and add LD_LIBRARY_PATH which is set to /usr/local/qt5pi/lib
+
Click Manage Kits and then Add.
 +
 
 +
Fill in:
 +
 
 +
Name: Raspberry Pi
 +
 
 +
Device Type: Generic Linux Device
 +
 
 +
Device: Raspberry Pi
 +
 
 +
Compiler: ARM GCC
 +
 
 +
Debugger->Manage->Edit->"/home/<you>/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-gdb" (change your username)
 +
 
 +
Qt version: Qt 5.x.x (qt5pi)
 +
 
 +
Ok->Add Kit->Raspberry Pi
 +
 
 +
Then go to the "Rasperry Pi" kit tab->System Environment and add LD_LIBRARY_PATH which is set to /usr/local/qt5pi/lib
  
 
Now you can build and run your application from Qt Creator.
 
Now you can build and run your application from Qt Creator.
  
==Troubleshooting==
+
== Troubleshooting ==
 +
=== Qt version not properly installed ===
 +
You need to keep the SD card image mounted during development!
 +
 
 +
Use this command in the same folder as the .img file:
  
===Qt version not properly installed===
+
<code lang="bash">sudo mount -o loop,offset=62914560 2015-05-05-raspbian-wheezy.img /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs</code>
  
You need to keep the SD card image mounted during development!
+
If QtCreator still reports this after mounting the SD card image, then you may need to create the directories missing from
  
If QtCreator still reports this after mounting the SD card image, then you may need to create the directories missing from
+
<code lang="bash">/mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/usr/local/qt5pi/</code>
  
 
or whatever the mount path is (these will probably include bin, translations, and so on). You can create empty directories using the mkdir command.
 
or whatever the mount path is (these will probably include bin, translations, and so on). You can create empty directories using the mkdir command.
  
===The default mkspec symlink is broken.===
+
=== The default mkspec symlink is broken. ===
 +
It means that mkspec is not found on your sysroot, so your must copy it.
  
It means that mkspec is not found on your sysroot, so your must copy it.
+
<code lang="bash">paulo@westeros:~$ sudo cp -r /usr/local/qt5pi/mkspecs/ /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/usr/local/qt5pi/</code>
  
 
If the problem persists, create the missing symlink, e.g.
 
If the problem persists, create the missing symlink, e.g.
 +
 +
<code lang="bash">sudo ln -s /usr/local/qt5pi/mkspecs/devices/linux-rasp-pi-g''+ /usr/local/qt5pi/mkspecs/default</code>
  
 
It is probably a good idea to do the same for the sysroot mkspecs.
 
It is probably a good idea to do the same for the sysroot mkspecs.
  
===Include &lt;QtGui/QtGui&gt;: No such file or directory===
+
=== Include <QtGui/QtGui>: No such file or directory ===
  
It seems Qt’s include was not found and you must add it to you .pro file:
+
It seems Qt's include was not found and you must add it to you .pro file:
  
===cc1: fatal error: .pch/release-shared/QtGui: No such file or directory===
+
<code>INCLUDEPATH += /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/usr/local/qt5pi/include/</code>
  
Some people have seen this error. Adding the “-no-pch” option when running configure should prevent it.
+
=== cc1: fatal error... ===
 +
'''cc1: fatal error: .pch/release-shared/QtGui: No such file or directory'''
  
===Getting Could not determine the target architecture! and Could not determine the host architecture!===
+
Some people have seen this error. Adding the "-no-pch" option when running configure should prevent it.
 +
 
 +
=== Getting Could not determine... ===
 +
'''Getting Could not determine the target architecture! and Could not determine the host architecture!'''
  
 
If you are getting this kind of error, it is possible that your current git branch is something other than master. To be sure, do the following:
 
If you are getting this kind of error, it is possible that your current git branch is something other than master. To be sure, do the following:
  
If it shows like this:<br />
+
<code lang="bash">daniel@daniel-t3500 : ~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git branch </code>
 +
 
 +
If it shows like this:
 +
<code>* (no branch)
 +
master</code>
 +
 
 +
Then you must checkout to master branch before running ./configure:
 +
 
 +
<code lang="bash">daniel@daniel-t3500 :~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git checkout master
 +
 
 +
daniel@daniel-t3500 : ~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git branch
 +
 
 +
* master</code>
  
Then you must checkout to master branch before running ./configure:<br />
+
It is also good to fetch the latest commits and apply them by doing:
  
It is also good to fetch the latest commits and apply them by doing:<br />
+
<code lang="bash">daniel@daniel-t3500 :~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git pull</code>
  
Also, check for the installation of libz (32 bits) in yor system. In ubuntu (64 bits) you might just:<br />
+
Also, check for the installation of libz (32 bits) in yor system. In ubuntu (64 bits) you might just:
 +
 
 +
<code lang="bash">sudo apt-get install lib32z1-dev</code>
  
 
After the ./configure script has failed first run these commands before restarting ./configure:
 
After the ./configure script has failed first run these commands before restarting ./configure:
  
===<span class="caps">EGL</span> Error : Could not create the egl surface: error = 0×3000===
+
<code lang="bash">daniel@daniel-t3500 : ~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git reset —hard
 +
 
 +
daniel@daniel-t3500 :~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git git clean -dxf</code>
 +
 
 +
=== EGL Error : Could not create... ===
 +
'''EGL Error : Could not create the egl surface: error = 0x3000'''
  
 
Try allocating more memory to video (try 64 or 128MB). Use the raspi-config utility to change this.
 
Try allocating more memory to video (try 64 or 128MB). Use the raspi-config utility to change this.
  
===<span class="caps">ABI</span> detection failed===
+
<code lang="bash">pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo raspi-config</code>
  
You will need Qt Creator 2.6 for Qt5 up to and including beta2.<br /> Any Qt 5 later than that will need to use nightly snapshots (or will have to wait for Qt Creator 2.6.1): After the beta2 all libraries were renamed again.
+
=== ABI detection failed ===
 +
You will need Qt Creator 2.6 for Qt5 up to and including beta2.
  
See [http://forum.qt.io/viewthread/22023 this forum thread for more details] ''[qt.io]''
+
Any Qt 5 later than that will need to use nightly snapshots (or will have to wait for Qt Creator 2.6.1): After the beta2 all libraries were renamed again.
  
===./configure: 2654: ./configure: /home/&lt;you&gt;/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-g++: not found -reduce-exports was requested but this compiler does not support it===
+
See [http://forum.qt.io/viewthread/22023 this forum thread for more details]
  
The error message is totally misleading. The real cause is that the precompile toolchain is 32-bit, so you need to:<br />
+
=== ./configure: 2654: ./configure... ===
 +
'''./configure: 2654: ./configure: /home/<you>/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-g: not found -reduce-exports was requested but this compiler does not support it'''
  
===make: g++: Command not found===
+
The error message is totally misleading. The real cause is that the precompile toolchain is 32-bit, so you need to:
  
Qt requires a native (non-cross-compiling) copy of g++ to be installed in order to build qmake. You can’t use clang. Fix with:<br />
+
<code lang="bash">sudo apt-get install ia32-libs</code>
  
===/mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/usr/lib/arm-linux-gnueabihf/libdl.a(dlopen.o): In function `dlopen’: (.text+0xc): undefined reference to `__dlopen’===
+
=== make: g: Command not found ===
 +
Qt requires a native (non-cross-compiling) copy of ''g++'' to be installed in order to build qmake. You can't use clang. Fix with:
 +
 
 +
<code lang="bash">sudo apt-get install build-essential</code>
 +
 
 +
=== In function `dlopen'... ===
 +
'''/mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/usr/lib/arm-linux-gnueabihf/libdl.a(dlopen.o): In function `dlopen': (.text+0xc): undefined reference to `__dlopen' '''
  
 
You need to run the ./fixQualifiedLibraryPaths again.
 
You need to run the ./fixQualifiedLibraryPaths again.
Line 150: Line 344:
 
See: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/13626726/an-error-building-qt-libraries-for-the-raspberry-pi for more info.
 
See: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/13626726/an-error-building-qt-libraries-for-the-raspberry-pi for more info.
  
===cc1: fatal error: .pch/release-shared/Qt5Gui: No such file or directory===
+
=== cc1: fatal error... ===
 +
'''cc1: fatal error: .pch/release-shared/Qt5Gui: No such file or directory'''
  
 
Try adding -no-pch to the ./configure command line.
 
Try adding -no-pch to the ./configure command line.
  
===Cannot create forwarding script Betrete ‘qtactiveqt’.git/hooks/commit-msg: Datei oder Verzeichnis nicht gefunden===
+
=== Cannot create forwarding script... ===
 +
'''Cannot create forwarding script Betrete 'qtactiveqt'.git/hooks/commit-msg: Datei oder Verzeichnis nicht gefunden'''
 +
 
 +
Try:
 +
 
 +
<code lang="bash">unset LANG
  
Try:<br />
+
./init-repository -f</code>

Latest revision as of 15:22, 10 January 2021

En Ar Bg De El Es Fa Fi Fr Hi Hu It Ja Kn Ko Ms Nl Pl Pt Ru Sq Th Tr Uk Zh

Introduction

This is a step by step guide to help beginners to cross-compile Qt5 for the Raspberry Pi. This allows you to be able to compile Qt5 applications for the Raspberry Pi from a PC and also deploy to the device automatically and debug programs. The instructions were tested on Ubuntu 15.04 but should work with any Debian based operating system.

This article will focus on simplicity, if you are looking for additional customization, please check a more detailed guide.

For a detailed tutorial on cross-compiling under Windows, see this tutorial.

For an up-to-date guide for cross-compiling Qt 5.6 targeting eglfs and Raspbian Jessie, see RaspberryPi2EGLFS.

Getting Started

First we create a folder to hold the source code and all the required files to do the cross-compilation. We chose to create a directory named "opt" in the home folder:

mkdir ~/opt

cd ~/opt

Now, download the following files:

  • Raspbian Wheezy image from (here):

wget http://downloads.raspberrypi.org/raspbian_latest -O wheezy-raspbian-latest.zip

unzip wheezy-raspbian-latest.zip

And mount it: sudo mkdir /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs

sudo mount -o loop,offset=62914560 2015-05-05-raspbian-wheezy.img /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs

Note: The name of the image file and the offset value in the above mount command will change with the latest version of Raspbian. To get the correct offset value, use:

sudo fdisk -l /path/to/imagefile

You will see something like:

sudo fdisk -l ./2016-09-23-raspbian-jessie.img

Disk ./2016-09-23-raspbian-jessie.img: 4.1 GiB, 4348444672 bytes, 8493056 sectors

Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes

Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

Disklabel type: dos

Disk identifier: 0xd94ffdb3


Device Boot Start End Sectors Size Id Type

./2016-09-23-raspbian-jessie.img1 8192 137215 129024 63M c W95 FAT32 (LBA)

./2016-09-23-raspbian-jessie.img2 137216 8493055 8355840 4G 83 Linux

The first image is the bootable sector. The second image is what you want to mount. Obtain the correct offset by multiplying the start of the second sector (here 137216) by the sector size (here 512) to obtain the offset. Here the correct offset is 137216 * 512 = 70254592

  • Download the cross compiling toolchain:

wget https://www.dropbox.com/s/sl919ly0q79m1e6/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf.tbz

(or at http://de.sourceforge.jp/projects/sfnet_rfidmonitor/downloads/crosscompilation-resources/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf.tbz)

tar -xf gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf.tbz

It is a 32-bit build so if you are running on a 64-bit machine (you probably are) you need to install ia32-libs:

paulo@westeros:~/opt$ sudo apt-get install ia32-libs

* ia32-libs has been replaced with Multiarch. Try installing lib32z1 lib32ncurses5 lib32bz2-1.0 instead.

  • Clone the cross-compile-tools repository:

This repository contains a script that will be used to fix some symbolic links.

git clone https://github.com/darius-kim/cross-compile-tools.git

  • Clone and init the Qt5 repository:

git clone git://code.qt.io/qt/qt5.git

cd qt5

./init-repository

If you're behind a firewall ./init-repository might fail. First run this command:

sed -i 's/git:/https:git./' .gitmodules

Then retry:

./init-repository -f

Compiling qtbase

Now the we have all the resources needed to compile qt5 for raspberry, we need to execute a script to fix symlinks and lib paths:

cd ~/opt/cross-compile-tools

sudo ./fixQualifiedLibraryPaths /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/ ~/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc

Go to the qt5/qtbase folder and run:

./configure -opengl es2 -device linux-rasp-pi-g++ -device-option CROSS_COMPILE=~/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf- -sysroot /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs -opensource -confirm-license -optimized-qmake -reduce-exports -release -make libs -prefix /usr/local/qt5pi -hostprefix /usr/local/qt5pi

make -j 4

sudo make install

Note: if you want the qmlscene binary you should add -make tools to the ./configure command.

Compiling other modules

Now that you have qmake, you can cross-compile the other modules. To avoid dependencies errors, the following order is sugested: qtimageformats, qtsvg, qtjsbackend, qtscript, qtxmlpatterns, qtdeclarative, qtsensors, qt3d, qtgraphicaleffects, qtjsondb, qtlocation, qtdocgallery.

To compile, you must do like the example below:

paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5$ cd qtimageformats

paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5/qtimageformats$ /usr/local/qt5pi/bin/qmake .

paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5/qtimageformats$ make -j4

paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5/qtimageformats$ sudo make install


Transferring the changed image back onto SD Card

After completing the these instructions the Raspberry Pi image will have QT5 installed onto it now we can copy it to the sdcard using dd:

paulo@westeros:~/opt/qt5$ cd~/opt/

paulo@westeros:~/opt$ sync; sudo umount /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs

paulo@westeros:~/opt$ sudo dd bs=1M if=2015-05-05-raspbian-wheezy.img of=/dev/sdb; sync

Note: Check the what the device name of your SD Card is by running the following command which will list the storage devices on your computer. Don't use the number at the end as that is the partition number and we're writing to the whole SD card:

sudo fdisk -l

Notes for macOS

  • Because your sdcard will be partitioned, macOS won't let you umount it, so you'll need to type:

sudo diskutil umountDisk /dev/disk3

where "disk3" will be the /dev/diskXsY where your sdcard first appeared.

  • To perform dd you will need to use the *r*disk index, so if your sdcard is disk3 you will need to type:

sudo dd bs=1M if=2015-05-05-raspbian-wheezy.img of=/dev/rdisk3; sync

Boot up your pi.

Configuring Qt Creator

To use Qt Creator properly, you must configure the "Qt Version" and "Tool Chains" sections.

Tool Chain Settings

go to Tools -> Options..-> Build & Run -> Compilers tab.

click in "Add -> GCC".

On "Compiler Path" set to "/home/<you>/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-g+".

Name it "ARM GCC" or similar.

obs: Adjust it to your username.

Qt Version settings.

Now go to Tools -> Options..-> Build & Run -> Qt Versions tab.

Click in "Add.." and choose you qmake for raspberry "/usr/local/qt5pi/bin/qmake".

Note for macOS

  • Because /usr is not visible by default, you first need to open a terminal and type:

sudo SetFile -a v /usr

  • After you've completed the qmake selection, if you wish to make /usr invisible again, type the same command with a capital V :

sudo SetFile -a V /usr

An alternative is to use CMD+SHIFT+. (dot) in the file dialog to make invisible directories momentarily visible

Configure Linux Devices

Go to Tools -> Options…-> Devices -> Devices tab.

Add a new configuration setting a "Generic Linux Device"

Hostname or IP address is the IP of your raspberry

user is pi

password is raspberry

obs: if your not did change it.

Target Path

When you try to deploy a program on your Raspberry Pi from Qtcreator you may get an error about an unknown command. This is because Qtcreator does not know where to copy the compiled file onto the Raspberry Pi.

The following line should be added to your .pro file:

target.path = /home/pi/

You may change the path to anything you want and the executable will be copied to and run from this location.


Now you are ready to run your first Qt raspberry pi project.

Example Project

You can download a hello world project:

paulo@westeros:~$ git clone https://git.gitorious.org/qt5-raspberrypi-example/qt5-raspberrypi-example.git

Open the project in Qt Creator and go to the Projects pane.

Click Manage Kits and then Add.

Fill in:

Name: Raspberry Pi

Device Type: Generic Linux Device

Device: Raspberry Pi

Compiler: ARM GCC

Debugger->Manage->Edit->"/home/<you>/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-gdb" (change your username)

Qt version: Qt 5.x.x (qt5pi)

Ok->Add Kit->Raspberry Pi

Then go to the "Rasperry Pi" kit tab->System Environment and add LD_LIBRARY_PATH which is set to /usr/local/qt5pi/lib

Now you can build and run your application from Qt Creator.

Troubleshooting

Qt version not properly installed

You need to keep the SD card image mounted during development!

Use this command in the same folder as the .img file:

sudo mount -o loop,offset=62914560 2015-05-05-raspbian-wheezy.img /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs

If QtCreator still reports this after mounting the SD card image, then you may need to create the directories missing from

/mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/usr/local/qt5pi/

or whatever the mount path is (these will probably include bin, translations, and so on). You can create empty directories using the mkdir command.

The default mkspec symlink is broken.

It means that mkspec is not found on your sysroot, so your must copy it.

paulo@westeros:~$ sudo cp -r /usr/local/qt5pi/mkspecs/ /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/usr/local/qt5pi/

If the problem persists, create the missing symlink, e.g.

sudo ln -s /usr/local/qt5pi/mkspecs/devices/linux-rasp-pi-g+ /usr/local/qt5pi/mkspecs/default

It is probably a good idea to do the same for the sysroot mkspecs.

Include <QtGui/QtGui>: No such file or directory

It seems Qt's include was not found and you must add it to you .pro file:

INCLUDEPATH += /mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/usr/local/qt5pi/include/

cc1: fatal error...

cc1: fatal error: .pch/release-shared/QtGui: No such file or directory

Some people have seen this error. Adding the "-no-pch" option when running configure should prevent it.

Getting Could not determine...

Getting Could not determine the target architecture! and Could not determine the host architecture!

If you are getting this kind of error, it is possible that your current git branch is something other than master. To be sure, do the following:

daniel@daniel-t3500 : ~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git branch

If it shows like this: * (no branch)

master

Then you must checkout to master branch before running ./configure:

daniel@daniel-t3500 :~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git checkout master

daniel@daniel-t3500 : ~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git branch

  • master

It is also good to fetch the latest commits and apply them by doing:

daniel@daniel-t3500 :~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git pull

Also, check for the installation of libz (32 bits) in yor system. In ubuntu (64 bits) you might just:

sudo apt-get install lib32z1-dev

After the ./configure script has failed first run these commands before restarting ./configure:

daniel@daniel-t3500 : ~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git reset —hard

daniel@daniel-t3500 :~/opt/qt5/qtbase $ git git clean -dxf

EGL Error : Could not create...

EGL Error : Could not create the egl surface: error = 0x3000

Try allocating more memory to video (try 64 or 128MB). Use the raspi-config utility to change this.

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ sudo raspi-config

ABI detection failed

You will need Qt Creator 2.6 for Qt5 up to and including beta2.

Any Qt 5 later than that will need to use nightly snapshots (or will have to wait for Qt Creator 2.6.1): After the beta2 all libraries were renamed again.

See this forum thread for more details

./configure: 2654: ./configure...

./configure: 2654: ./configure: /home/<you>/opt/gcc-4.7-linaro-rpi-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-g: not found -reduce-exports was requested but this compiler does not support it

The error message is totally misleading. The real cause is that the precompile toolchain is 32-bit, so you need to:

sudo apt-get install ia32-libs

make: g: Command not found

Qt requires a native (non-cross-compiling) copy of g++ to be installed in order to build qmake. You can't use clang. Fix with:

sudo apt-get install build-essential

In function `dlopen'...

/mnt/rasp-pi-rootfs/usr/lib/arm-linux-gnueabihf/libdl.a(dlopen.o): In function `dlopen': (.text+0xc): undefined reference to `__dlopen'

You need to run the ./fixQualifiedLibraryPaths again.

See: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/13626726/an-error-building-qt-libraries-for-the-raspberry-pi for more info.

cc1: fatal error...

cc1: fatal error: .pch/release-shared/Qt5Gui: No such file or directory

Try adding -no-pch to the ./configure command line.

Cannot create forwarding script...

Cannot create forwarding script Betrete 'qtactiveqt'.git/hooks/commit-msg: Datei oder Verzeichnis nicht gefunden

Try:

unset LANG

./init-repository -f